World is in constant progress. Paraglider design is no different. Accumulating years of experience we arrived at a number of proven solutions:
Airtakes designed and executed in Shark-nose technology meaning specific, concave shape of the reinforced profile area at its leading edge (the name comes form the very shape, reminding shark's nose). Due to such shape the intakes can be smaller and moved a bit back, so that leading edge remains undisturbed and offers smooth airflow. The internal pressure of the canopy stays stable within wide speed range. In everyday flying this results in greater resistance to stalls (e.g. when thermalling) and front collapses at high speeds.
New version of the Alternative Steering System ALC+ does not require adjusting it to actual suspension height. Prior to launch, the ALC+ handle is fixed to the risers with magnetic clip, keeping it in place and not tangled with the rigging. In flight the handle stays within easy reach, while elastic cord attached to its lower part prevents it from getting in propeller's way and offers adjustment of the ALC+ line length to the present configuration of trimmers and speed system. This solution is practically identical to the original ALC ball, with the only difference that the handle can be fixed to the risers and it does not require any adjustment.
ALC+ allows for aggressive turns even at full speed without excessive alteration of the reflex airofoil. It is especially important in case of bigger canopies, inherently haunted by significant steering forces and low agility. When necessary, only the main steering handle can be used, with the ALC+ system ignored (rendering it inactive).
Push&Relax technology - PPG canopies marked with this symbol demonstrate exceptionally stable flight on full speed bar, that is at high speeds.
Why stability at high speeds is so important?
In free-flying speedbar is used time to time, most often as a radical measure to escape from sink area or as a defence against being blown back into lee. Still, there are many pilots who do not use speed bar at all. That's why designers so far paid little attention to paragliders stability in such configuration. On the contrary, in PPG flying a speed bar is used commonly. It is only a pilot who decides the route, not the thermals location or terrain characteristics. It is nothing uncommon when a pilot takes off, opens the trimmers, engages speed system and gets on an umpty kilometers route. In such case lack of stability and comfort would be really distressing.
How does lack of stability manifest itself?
Good stability of your canopy can be compared to proper balancing wheels in your car. When you drive slowly, this is not much of a problem, but the faster you drive the more evident vibration you get. Badly stabilized canopy will move accordion-style, quiver and resonate, causing pilot to be afraid of using speed system (and rightly so).
Why the canopy becomes unstable?
It's really all about balancing - a canopy can be trusted when the tensions run evenly all along its surface. While great majority of designers take pains to make sure their paragliders are evenly tensioned at trim speed, they are neglecting stability at max speed. That's a big mistake since increased ram effect, air pressure inside the wing and increased lift in individual areas can drastically alter distribution of loads and tensions. If it was not taken into account, the paraglider will quiver and behave accordion-wise.
How did we succeed in effective stabilising the canopy?
Push&Relax Technology is centered around fully reflex aerofoil. Basically that's why it is tuck-resistant and self stabilizing in all directions. Still, just using the reflex aerofoil is not enough. Structure of inner reinforcements, precise shape of individual surface panels tensioning all aerodynamical surfaces together with leading and trailing edges have to be carefully combined, so that canopy will remain properly tensioned not only at 40 km/h, but also at 60. In order to succeed you have to include research, a lot of trials, sophisticated software and first of all huge practical experience.
We did all of that and even more. In effect when flying Dudek paragliders marked with Push&Relax Technology sign you can safely put the pedal to the metal and enjoy fast flight.
DRA - Dudek Reflex Airfoil -applied in PPG wings fully autostabilised arofoil, based on long years of research and experience. In our variant we managed to get rid of typical flaws associated with these aerofoils.
Dudek Optimized Airfoil It incorporates all our experiences stemming form previous designs and as a special feature is optimized with dedicated engineering software.
CSG - Canopy Shape Guard - is our unique system controlling canopy coherence. It is because of this system that our wings are equally tensioned, smooth, stable and... simply remarkable.
CSG consists of a number of lesser systems:
VS (V-shaped Supports) - they are there to ensure upper surface smoothness, exact aerofoil reproduction on entire wing span, better load distribution and possible small number of suspension points.
RSS (Reinforcing Strap System) - an independent reinforcements net on lower surface, strengthening and stiffening all construction.
OCD (Optimized Crossports Design) - the intercellar openings have carefully designed shapes and are optimally placed between stress lines in the ribs, in order to ensure efficient pressure distribution in the canopy and its quick inflation.
CCS (Closed Dell Structure) - this is a number of closed cells in most important locations. It?s goal is to hinder the backflow from the cells out and thus to facilitate their refilling and canopy recovery in case of a collapse.
Canopy Shape Guard effectively stiffens the wing along all its span, practically eliminating any lateral canopy work. Its only flaw are the increases in weight (about 1 kg), material- and labour consumption, and of course in overall costs. Yet it is well worth the sweat, as in turn we get a no-compromise product of highest performance and quality, that above all is able to keep its planned parameters for a long, long time.
Not every wing features all DRA subsystems - you will find details in each wing description.
Application of flexible synthetic rods was tried for the first time in the Hadron. Then, positive experience led us to use this technology in many other designs of various classes.
The leading edge is closed to the airflow, and its precise shape is kept with laminated cloth reinforcements, incorporating synthetic rods. The rods make the leading edge stiffer and smoother, bringing improvements in many areas - from easier inflation, through stiffening the canopy in flight to improved general airflow.
Another advantage is possibility of using three rows of suspension lines instead of four, thus decreasing parasitic drag and distinctly improving overall performance.
Mini ribs speak for themselves - they are additionally introduced in the trailing edge between main ribs. Their task is to decrease ballooning (expanding and deformation of the cells) in this vital area af the aerofoil. Keeping the rear part in shape reduces the drag induced behind trailing edge, thus improving general airflow and increasing airspeed.
Thanks to introduction of stiffening rods (Flexi Edge Technology) and other internal reinforcements, elimination of one suspension row - from four to three - was possible. In effect, reduced total length of lines led to reduction of the drag, thus improving overall performance of the design. Load tests proved the strength of new rigging scheme to be the same as before, as confirmed in certification process fulfilling EN926-1 norm.
Is summer 2011 we have bought the most modern laser cutter. Capabilities of this machine allow for serial cutting of complicated shape narrow elements in large numbers, their optimal placing in relation to structure of the textile and highest possible precision of cut.
Have a peek inside the production plant.
2D system is generally similar to the classic one - pilot has but two main steering handles to steer. However, it's operation is significantly different. Due to division of main steering lines (there are two for each side now, with one of them going outside of the pulley), an experienced pilot can modify steering progression according to his own preferences.The rigging scheme was designed for low progression in low and middle speed ranges, so that pilot has better control of the wing. At high speeds (trimmers released and speed system engaged) only the outer steering lines or special systems (TEA/TST) should be used.
Basic rules of 2D operation on Hadron's example
The new system is based on a solution developed by Michel Carnet on his ReAction since 2007, at the World Championship in China.
ALC allows for aggressive, yet effortless, turns on full speed without influencing its reflex aerofoil. It is especially important in the case of bigger canopies, inherently haunted by significant steering forces and low agility.
The new steering component is a red ball, easily positioned to fit various harness hang-points and personal preferences. In addition, the ALC ball and line are routed in such a way to be easy to use without the risk of entanglement with risers or other parts. Of course you can use just the standard brakes if you wish, ignoring the ALC ball.
The current version of ALC is honed to perfection by long trials of numerous designs. All signs show that it will soon become a standard in alternative PPG control systems.
Our original idea, featuring additional miniature handles that steer the stabilizers. It is a great improvement on long flights, when opened trimmers and full speedbar make steering much harder.
Prior to grabbing miniature TST-handles (Tip Steering Toggles) pilot places the main steering handles in a special Toggle Docking Stations, equipped with strong neodymium magnets. In this way you can comfortably steer the wing via TST handles, not worrying about the brakes getting tangled.
Split 'A' riser makes for easier launch and 'big ears'
As in all other elements of the wing, the risers too must be constantly adjusted to the ever-increasing needs of the pilots. As a standard, every Dudek wing is equipped with a split A riser. Most of the lines go to the main riser, and the additional one has just one or two outer lines.
There are two advantages such a solution. Firstly, the big ears are a lot easier to introduce - you no longer have to reach high above the quick-links, and the taut lines do not hurt your fingers. Secondly, a start is much easier, too. With a dynamic push every wing has a tendency to form a horseshoe, i.e. to inflate the tips faster than the centre. The pilot can reduce this effect by grabbing only the main A risers, leaving the outer part hanging. The leading edge will then be pulled only in the central part and the tendency for the tips to speed up will be eliminated.
When the wing is in the air, you can recognise the risers without hesitation. But when the wing is lying on the ground it can be difficult, especially while preparing for a reverse launch and the risers just form a twisted bundle. That's why we have distinctly marked the main A risers with yellow tape, so it is easier for you to find the correct risers and your instructor can instantly see if you are right.
A trimming system for additional angle of attack regulation. Used mainly in PPG wings.
This system features replaceable trim straps. After prolonged or intensive operation they need to be replaced, as they get damaged by buckle edges.
Our new trimmer straps have a visible scale with negative (blue) and positive (red) areas and marked neutral position. Getting the buckle in red area means that the wing is flying faster, while moving it in the blue causes the wing to fly slower. Neutral position is a suggested take-off position, notwithstanding that each pilot will have his/her own preferences worked out in time. Applied markings help you remember characteristic settings, e.g. max speed in level flight, easy take-off in strong wind etc.
Straps are finished with loops for easier operation.
Additional handles for easy tucking big ears, equipped with magnets and offering easy blocking the excess of line in a cleat. This allows you to keep the ears pulled in all the time, while retaining full freedom of brake operation.
Indigenous way to hold the brake handles at the risers that keeps them firmly in place, while both attaching and releasing goes smoothly and easily. Used in most of our handles (TCT, ACT, SCT)
Steering handles with adjustable loop size. Finished with soft neoprene, equippped with a swivel adn Easy Keeper. Standard issue in FreeWay, Mach 1,0 and Zig-Zag 2 (without option of exchanging for other handles - not that you would want to ;) . Optional for all other paragliders. Apart from basic version there is enhanced one too, with a ball for easier steering andor loop to fix elastic band. Especially acro flyers and speed riders praise this solution.
Sporty, soft and comfortable steering handles. Made of soft neoprene they fit you palm, while a red ball makes steering easier.
Equippped with a swivel adn Easy Keeper.
Competition pilots like them a lot.
Available standard (bigger) and short (smaller) versions.
An easy conversion from hard through medium to soft brake handles. Equippped with a swivel adn Easy Keeper.
Available standard (bigger) and short (smaller) versions.
Makes possible to have your brake handles as you like them, in stiff or soft configuration. (used in old paragliders)
The task of this feature is to counteract the effect of engine torque, that tends to make the paraglider turn in the direction opposite to the propeller's rotation. TEA balances the torque by adjusting the length of some wingtip lines, and it can be adjusted to match you specific combination of paramotor/propeller. Simple to use, effective and easy to toggle on & off in the air.
Dedicated slots automatically removing dirt from the wing tips.
Located at the wing tips make removal of dirt a way easier.
The PA (also known as Paap Kolar system) merges speed system with trimmer operation. It is devised only for competitors, understanding its effects and all difficulties involved. Regular pilots will need up to three months before fully mastering its use.
The general idea is simple: pressing the speedbar simultaneously releases the trimmers (and vice versa, releasing speedbar closes the trimmers ).
The system is supplied subject to personal agreement of our designer.